|NIACIN (VITAMIN B3, NICOTINIC ACID)
Niacor, Niaspan, Nicobid, Nico-400, Nicotinex, Novoniacin , Slo-Niacin, Tri-B3
Classifications: vitamin b3 ; cardiovascular agent; antilipemic; lipid-lowering agent
Pregnancy Category: C
50 mg, 100 mg, 250 mg, 500 mg tablets; 125 mg, 250 mg, 400 mg, 500 mg, 750 mg, 1000 mg sustained release tablets, capsules
Water-soluble, heat-stable, B-complex vitamin (B3) that functions with riboflavin as a control agent in coenzyme system that converts protein, carbohydrate, and fat to energy through oxidation-reduction. Niacinamide, an amide of niacin, is used as an alternative in the prevention and treatment of pellagra.
Produces vasodilation by direct action on vascular smooth muscles. Inhibits hepatic synthesis of VLDL, cholesterol and triglyceride, and, indirectly, LDL. Large doses effectively reduce elevated serum cholesterol and total lipid levels in hypercholesterolemia and hyperlipidemic states.
In prophylaxis and treatment of pellagra, usually in combination with other B-complex vitamins, and in deficiency states accompanying carcinoid syndrome, isoniazid therapy, Hartnup's disease, and chronic alcoholism. Also in adjuvant treatment of hyperlipidemia (elevated cholesterol or triglycerides) in patients who do not respond adequately to diet or weight loss. Also as vasodilator in peripheral vascular disorders, Ménière's disease, and labyrinthine syndrome, as well as to counteract LSD toxicity and to distinguish between psychoses of dietary and nondietary origin.
Hypersensitivity to niacin; hepatic impairment; severe hypotension; hemorrhaging or arterial bleeding; active peptic ulcer; pregnancy (category C), lactation, and children <16 y.
History of gallbladder disease, liver disease, and peptic ulcer; glaucoma; angina; coronary artery disease; diabetes mellitus; predisposition to gout; allergy.
Adult: PO 1020 mg/d IV/IM/SC 25100 mg 25 times/d
Adult: PO 300500 mg/d in divided doses
Child: PO 50100 mg t.i.d.
Adult: PO 1.53 g/d in divided doses, may increase up to 6 g/d if necessary
Child: PO 100250 mg/d in 3 divided doses, may increase by 250 mg/d q23 wk as tolerated
PREPARE: Intermittent: Dilute 50100 mg in 500 mL of NS to yield concentrations of 0.10.2 mg/mL.
ADMINISTER: Intermittent: Give over 1224 h.
Niacin causes elevated serum bilirubin, uric acid, alkaline phosphatase, AST, ALT, LDH levels and may cause glucose intolerance. Decreases serum cholesterol 1530% and may cause false elevations with certain fluorometric methods of determining urinary catecholamines. Niacin may cause false-positive urine glucose tests using copper sulfate reagents, e.g., Benedict's solution.
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