Beesix, hexaBetalin, NesTrex
Classifications: hormones and synthetic substitutes; vitamin
Pregnancy Category: A (C if >RDA)


25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, 250 mg, 500 mg tablets; 100 mg/mL injection


Water-soluble complex of three closely related compounds with B6 activity. Considered essential to human nutrition, although a deficiency syndrome is not well defined. Converted in body to pyridoxal, a coenzyme that functions in protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism and in facilitating release of glycogen from liver and muscle. In protein metabolism, participates in many enzymatic transformations of amino acids and conversion of tryptophan to niacin and serotonin. Aids in energy transformation in brain and nerve cells, and is thought to stimulate heme production.

Therapeutic Effects

Evaluated by improvement of B6 deficiency manifestations: Nausea, vomiting, skin lesions resembling those of riboflavin and niacin deficiency (seborrhea-like lesions about eyes, nose, and mouth, glossitis, stomatitis), edema, CNS symptoms (depression, irritability, peripheral neuritis, convulsions), hypochromic microcytic anemia.


Prophylaxis and treatment of pyridoxine deficiency, as seen with inadequate dietary intake, drug-induced deficiency (e.g., isoniazid, oral contraceptives), and inborn errors of metabolism (vitamin B6–dependent convulsions or anemia). Also to prevent chloramphenicol-induced optic neuritis, to treat acute toxicity caused by overdosage of cycloserine, hydralzine, isoniazid (INH); alcoholic polyneuritis; sideroblastic anemia associated with high serum iron concentration. Has been used for management of many other conditions ranging from nausea and vomiting in radiation sickness and pregnancy to suppression of postpartum lactation.


Safety of large doses in pregnancy [category A (C if >RDA)] or lactation is not established.

Route & Dosage

Dietary Deficiency
Adult: PO/IM/IV 2.5–10 mg/d times 3 wk, then may reduce to 2.5–5 mg/d
Child: PO 5–25 mg/d times 3 wk, then 1.5–2.5 mg/d

Pyridoxine Deficiency Syndrome
Adult: PO/IM/IV Initial dose up to 600 mg/d may be required; PO/IM/IV Maintenance Dose: Up to 50 mg/d

Isoniazid-Induced Deficiency
Adult: PO/IM/IV 100–200 mg/d times 3 wk, then 25–100 mg/d
Child: PO 10–50 mg/d times 3 wk, then 1–2 mg/kg/d

Pyridoxine-Dependent Seizures
Neonate/Infant: PO/IM/IV 50–100 mg/d



PREPARE: Direct: Give undiluted.  Continuous: May be added to most standard IV solutions.  

ADMINISTER: Direct: Give at a rate of 50 mg or fraction thereof over 60 seconds.  Continuous: Give according to ordered rate for infusion.  

Adverse Effects (1%)

Body as a Whole: Paresthesias, slight flushing or feeling of warmth, temporary burning or stinging pain in injection site. CNS: Somnolence seizures (particularly following large parenteral doses). Metabolic: Low folic acid levels.


Drug: Isoniazid, cycloserine, penicillamine, hydralazine and oral contraceptives, may increase pyridoxine requirements; may reverse or antagonize therapeutic effects of levodopa.


Absorption: Readily absorbed from GI tract. Distribution: Stored in liver; crosses placenta. Metabolism: Metabolized in liver. Elimination: Excreted in urine.

Nursing Implications

Assessment & Drug Effects

Patient & Family Education

Common adverse effects in italic, life-threatening effects underlined; generic names in bold; classifications in SMALL CAPS; Canadian drug name; Prototype drug